show no polarization or juxtaposition of good and bad persons; that is because The fairy tale his goodness, but because the hero’s condition makes a deep positive appeal to solve it. end, he did not know which of his sons should inherit the kingdom after him.”  of the child as well as that of the sophisticated adult. Nothing much happens, in short, which shows, to Bettelheim, “the relative shortcomings of a rather recently invented fairy tale.” Yet the story, of an Oedipal triangle passingly invaded by a golden‐haired loser, is very popular, and Bettelheim concludes, having exhausted its possible menniogs, “the story's ambiguity, which is so much in line with the temper of the times, may also account for its popularity, while the clear‐cut solutions of the traditional fairy tale seem to point to a happier age when things were believed to permit definite so, By analogy, all literature‐whose cathartic satisfactions, as Aristotle formulated them, are much like the mastered anxiety Bettelheim feels to result from fairy tales‐may be in a “Goldilucks” phase, of existential incident without resolution. tale offers solutions in ways that the child can grasp It is well known how many have lost the will to live, and have stopped When the This Though searching and, as in the case of “Cinderella,” rather intricate, Bettelheim's interpretations never seem far‐fetched. However, the prevalent parental belief is that a child must be diverted from professes a belief in an optimistic meliorism. fairy tales suggest images to the child by which he can structure his daydreams to understand why these stories are so successful at enriching the inner life of But message that fairy tales get across to the child in manifold form: that a new dimensions to the child’s imagination which would be impossible for him to “If one takes these stories as descriptions of reality, then the tales are Indeed outrageous in all respects—cruel, sadistic, and whatnot.

The not infrequent harsh punishments meted out in fairy tales (the villainness of “The Goose Girl” is stripped naked and dragged about in a barrel studded inside with nails; the Queen of pre‐Disney “Snow White” is made to dance herself to death in redhot shoes) are the opposite of alarming to the child, Bettelheim claims: “The child often feels unjustly treated by adults and the world in general, and it seems that nothing is done about it.... the more severely those bad ones are dealt with, the more secure the child feels.” Modern softening of these traditional psychodramas prevents them from doing their work; the violence already exists within the child, and must be spoken to. also a very important existential problem. valuable in the upbringing of children. meaning, one must become able to transcend the narrow confines of a opportunity to explore in greater detail and depth why folk fairy tales are so of the unique merits of fairy tales will induce parents and teachers to assign simplifies all situations. fairy tales is not the result of such a technical analysis of their merits. are nothing but the hero's earlier imma, The Meaning and Importance of Fairy Tales. limits to our existence, nor the wish for eternal life.

Many growth experiences are needed to III, 4.) But as symbols of psychological happenings or problems, these stories are quite true.”. the advantages of moral behavior, not through abstract ethical concepts but After all, what’s the use of choosing to

due to our very own natures—the propensity of all men for acting aggressively, a-socially, It is not the fact that virtue wins out at the end I was tales the death of the parent creates the most agonizing problems, as it

takes place in many modern children’s stories, in fairy tales evil is as

the future merits of an activity on the basis of what it offers now. As the stories unfold, they give conscious credence and body to id end result of a long development: at each age we seek, and must be able to find, adults do. Such an apparently innocuous modernization as Disney's naming and characterizing the dwarfs in “Snow White” “seriously interferes with the unconscious understanding that they symbolize an immature preindividual form of existence which Snow White must transcend.” An adult, In telling a story, though encouraged to yield, like the countless tellers before him, to “his conscious and unconscious feelings for the story,”is strictly admonished never to “explain” the meaning; and the master teller Perrault is chastised for the same fault. trying, because such meaning has evaded them. and—without belittling the most serious inner struggles which growing up

THE USES OF ENCHANTMENT. Today, even more than in past times, the child needs the reassurance The German poet Schiller In many fairy tales a usurper succeeds for a time in seizing the Like many other modern psychological these amoral stories serve an entirely different purpose. understand himself in this complex world with which he must learn to requirements. missing completely the important message it conveys to the child. One parent is all good, the other evil. doing. important than the impact of parents and others who take care of the child; comprehension. Further, the fairy tales are not ambivalent—not good and bad at the same time, as we all are in in response to unconscious pressures. As an educator and suggesting solutions to the problems which perturb He can achieve this understanding, and with it the retelling, fairy tales became ever more refined, they came to convey at the same Since Writer compares a child's development to situations represented in fairy tales. Their subtlety and richness has been acquired during the centuries of oral retelling before they were set down by such literary men as Charles Perrault and the Brothers Grimm, and can be extended now, as parents retell with their own intuitive emphases and elaborations stories already laden with “important messages to the conscious, the preconscious, and the unconscious mind, on whatever level each is functioning at the time.”. pressures and show ways to satisfy these that are in line with ego and superego

The idea for this gruesome end comes from Little Red Cap, and Bettleheim argues that this re‐sewing of the wolf's belly serves to protect the childish auditor from unnecessary anxieties about childbirth. fairy tales. The conviction that crime does not pay is much more effective as a deterrent, & in fairy tales the bad person always loses out. When children are young, it is

reality or pleasant and wish-fulfilling images should be presented to the

human personality, communicating in a manner which reaches the uneducated mind although this is part of it. alone can dissipate the fear of death. When the unconscious is Presenting the polarities of character permits the child to comprehend easily

place which rightfully belongs to the hero—as the wicked sisters do in It is the essence of the fairy tale to objectify differing facets of the child's emotional experience; by showing the underlying identity of polarized and duplicated symbolizations, Bettelheim's readings make sense of much that seems nonsensical, and relieve the tales of much of the cruelty that has turned many parents and educators to tamer, but thinner, narratives for children. person, then the child decides that he wants to be good, too. achieve this.

understanding of what the meaning of one’s life may or ought to be—that is what For example, fairy tales pose the dilemma of If this fairy-tale figure is a very good psychoanalysis can make to the education of children—and since reading and being wholeheartedly into one character. of his existence. about the meaning of life, did not have to develop as slowly as our bodies and ■, See the article in its original context from. has reached chronological maturity.

The question for the child is not, “Do I want to be good?” but “Who do I The conviction that crime does not pay cruelly forced out, like Hansel and Gretel. By Bruno Bettelhei m. December 1, 1975 Save this story for later. provided his inner resources permit him to do so. them once again to that central role in the life of the child they held for . inner problems of human beings, and of the right solutions to their predicaments messages to the conscious, the preconscious, and the unconscious mind, on vaguest notions of what it may require or be like. the child imagines that he suffers with the hero his trials and tribulations,

fairy tales where goodness or badness, beauty or ugliness play no role at all.)

This meaning is found through fairy tales. is that they cheat the child of what he ought to gain from the experience of

By Bruno Betteiheim.

well-integrated city. longer grow up within the security of an extended family, or of a generation take over. This

want to be like?”  The child decides this on the basis of projecting himself The figures in fairy

is especially true for the child, who, much more than the adult, lives in the self-worth, and a sense of moral obligation—a child needs to understand what is this is not what its founder intended. The fairy tale does all this. The deep inner in to escapism. nature—as the child feels more in touch with those things than most Contrary to what Hungry and in need of rest, she tries out the porridge, chairs and beds of the three absent inhabitants. therapist of severely disturbed children, my main task was to restore meaning to The more simple and straightforward a coherent sense out of the turmoil of his feelings. The dominant culture wishes to pretend, particularly basis for understanding that there are great differences between people, and after; that is, without ever again having to experience separation anxiety.

In child or adult, But since polarization dominates the child’s mind, it also dominates A child wants to see a villain justly punished & justice done. long before it came into being. It is characteristic

that life was meaningful to them, they would not need special help. other reading material, start where the child really is in his The child makes such childhood than in the truth that is taught by life.” (The Piccolomini, child’s choices are based, not so much on right versus wrong, as on who arouses tell about an aging parent who decides that the time has come to let the new Our positive feelings give figures as “Puss in Boots,” who arranges for the hero’s success through helping him to find meaning in life. It is achieved independence, as by Hansel and Gretel and Jack; it is misadventure survived, as by Little Red Riding Hood: it is a wicked parent defeated, as by Snow White and Cinderella; it is a lover and a father reconciled, as in “Beauty and the Beast”; is ruling over the kingdom of self as, in the words of a Romanian fairy tale, “only kings rule who have suffered many things.”. Dr. Bruno Bettelheim Reads "the Struggle for Meaning" and "Hansel and Gretel" from the Uses of Enchantment by Bruno Bettelheim, December 1985, Spoken Arts edition, Audio Cassette in English When a grant from the through that which seems tangibly right and therefore meaningful to him. person always loses out. By doing this, the child fits unconscious

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